International Health Promotion Research Archive

Health clubs play an integral role in encouraging people become more physically active and, as a result, help to prevent chronic disease. To support health clubs working to improve the health of their community, we conducted an extensive review of existing literature on the impact of exercise on the primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of chronic disease, as well as the cost effectiveness of programs promoting physical activity.

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The review looked at 453 articles published through September 2015. A gap analysis was also conducted to determine where further research is still needed

Primary Prevention

Primary prevention is the prevention of chronic disease before the disease occurs. Lifelong exercise to prevent the onset of obesity is an example of primary prevention.

Research on primary prevention is sorted alphabetically by condition, and then by the country or region in which each study was completed. Each citation provides a brief summary of the findings of each article and a link to either the abstract or full text article.  

You will find research on the following conditions: 

  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Breast cancer
  • Colon and colorectal cancer
  • Endometrial cancer
  • Lung cancer
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Prostate cancer
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Osteoporosis
  • Stroke

 

Secondary Prevention

Secondary prevention is the detection and treatment of pre-clinical pathological changes and the control of disease progression. It includes the prevention of diseases among individuals or groups at a higher risk of developing them. Exercising to control blood sugar following a pre-diabetes diagnosis is an example of secondary prevention.

Research on secondary prevention is sorted alphabetically by condition, and then by the country or region in which each study was completed. Each citation provides a brief summary of the findings of each article and a link to either the abstract or full text article.  

You will find research on the following conditions: 

  • Alzheimer’s disease/dementia
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Depression
  • Diabetes
  • Dyslipidemia
  • Hypertension
  • Obesity

 

Tertiary Prevention

Tertiary prevention is the reducing and minimizing of the consequences of a disease once it has occurred. It is referred to as the clinical phase of a chronic disease. Walking daily to prevent the progression high blood pressure is an example of tertiary prevention.

Research on tertiary prevention is sorted alphabetically by condition, and then by the country or region in which each study was completed. Each citation provides a brief summary of the findings of each article and a link to either the abstract or full text article. 

You will find research on the following conditions: 

  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Arthritis
  • Breast cancer
  • COPD
  • Chronic heart failure
  • Coronary artery disease (CAD)
  • Colon cancer
  • Depression
  • Diabetes
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Osteoporosis

 

Cost Effectiveness

Cost effectiveness refers to the financial viability of physical activity programs. Research on the cost effectiveness of physical activity programs is sorted alphabetically by the country or region in which each study was completed. Each citation provides a brief summary of the findings of each article and a link to either the abstract or full text article.